Tribal People’s Household Goods About To be Lost
Tribal Peoples’ Household Goods Are About to be Lost
The antiquity of Odisha is reflected in distinct variety of temple architecture, language and literature, and tribal peoples’ lifestyles maintained unadulterated even today in its different nooks and corners . The tribals have kept their rich culture and traditions very much alive even today despite of having their hamlets located in different inaccessible forest tracts and hilly terrains. The wide use of plastics, the urban encroachment, bare necessities of life, the comforts of modern day world have brought little changes in our tribal peoples’ lifestyle. It seems unavoidable because of the assimilation process in the course of time.It seems apparent as if a lot of their household goods are very fast vanishing out of our life. It is because of Odisha’s rich tribal tourism potential, many sociologists ,anthropologists and common tourists as well, flock to Odisha,looking for the intriguing persona of this relatively unexplored state.
In some of my previous articles , I have described about tribal jewellery , tribal housing patterns, tribal music equipments, tribal textiles etc. of Odishan tribes.But this time, I have concentrated on the different household goods widely used by different indigenous tribal communities and some of their personal belongings which they always carry, in this present article.
Varieties of comb( Katu of Juang
And Sireni of Kutia Kandha)
Juang people of Gonasika Hill range, situated in Keonjhar region of Odisha( India) utilize a specific bamboo made comb . This is ethnically called Katu. It is made of wood, bamboo ,yarn and vegetable gum. The wooden piece of the comb is flawlessly cut with customary themes. Aside from combing, the Katu has other ethnical uses… . Another chief utization of the comb is that a boy offers it to a girl as the confession of his love. In the event that the girl acknowledges the comb , it is perceived that she has given her assent for fellowship which may prompt romance and marriage subsequently. The video of Juang comb making is attached herewith for your reference.
Different varieties of Katu, used by Juangs, ostm
The Kutia Kandha people of Belghar area in kandhamala region of Odisha(India), utilize a specific kind of comb which is ethnically called Sireni. A few Kandha women additionally use it as hair clip or hairpin . The recently wedded Kandha young lady when goes to her father’s home after marriage , she used to take a great deal of combs along with her to gift her family members at father’s home and that demonstrates that she is having a happy conjugal life in her parents- in -law house. The video of comb making of Kutia Kandha people is attached herewith for your reference.
Sireni, being used by Kutia Kandhas. ostm
Bati ( traditional lamp)
These are earthen lamps utilized by especially Paraja tribals of Odisha, India . Oil made out of homegrown oilseeds ( like ragi, mustard, castor or karanja and so forth) are utilized to light the lamps during night.Now a days, electricity supply has been made possible to several remotely located villages.
Bati (traditional lamp)of Paraja people.ostm
Juang of Gonasika hill range , Keonjhar .
Decorative oil lamp lit before deities in the home. ostm
Here I would like to attach a picture of other traditional lamps having a vintage look , used by Odia people in different other parts of the state . After the supply of electricity having been made possible to almost all rural belts, these traditional lamps are fast vanishing out of our life.
Traditional lamps used in different rural households but nowadays very rarely seen
Duna (Tobacco Container)
Duna is nothing other than a bamboo made tobacco container,used by the Kutia Kandha people of Belghar locale of Kandhamal district of Odisha,India. A hallow piece of bamboo is picked for this reason. It’s external surface is smoothened and engraved with different geometrical designs and regularly painted as well. The joint part of the bamboo piece is kept underneath. The tip of the upper end is covered by a piece of cloth subsequent to putting tobacco inside.
Duna ( tobacco container of Kutia Kandha), ostm
Jeri ( wine pipe)
Lanjia Saora people of Puttasing locale of Rayagada district (South Odisha, India) utilize a sort of wine pipe made of brass. This looks very alluring because of the engravings on its external surface. Their spiritual teacher called Shaman utilizes this Jeri while playing out the custom of offering liquors to their Gods, Goddesses and precursors. The dhokra craft making ( the lost wax metalcasting method) video is attached herewith for your reference.
Circular Jeri used by Shamans, ostm
Another variety of Jeri, used by Shamans
Dudua ( Wine container)
This wine container is comprised of earth since mud is impartial in character . This is predominantly utilized by Gadaba individuals in Koraput district of Odisha, India . They use to store and serve their countrymade liquor locally called salap ( sagopalm juice)through this Dudua
Dudua used for storing and serving salap by Gadabas , ostm
Audaka ( Measuring pot)
This is a sort of measuring pot, utilized specially for measuring food grains. This is utilized by Oraon people of Subdega locale in Sundargada area. This is made of brass, made by the neighborhood smiths.
Audaka ( grain measuring pot) used by Oraon ifpeople.ostm
Pai( Small bell metal measuring pot with geometric motif used for measuring oil)
of Juang community.ostm
Tapa ( oil extracting baskets)
Mankirdia tribal people are famous for making different utility items out of siali creeper fibre. Mankirdia people make this little baskets, particularly used by Santal community( Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, India) for the purpose of oil extraction. They extract oil from boiled oil seeds such as ragi,sorisa( mustard),Jada( castor), neem( limba), karanja etc.
The video of Mankirdia people weaving Tapa is attached for your reference.
Tapa woven by Mankirdia people,OSTM
Sunga ( Smoking Pipe)
The smoking pipe of Dongria Kandhas, living in the Niyamgiri slopes ( Rayagada district of Odisha, India) is privately called Sunga. This is made of brass and different engravings of geometric designs are found on its surface..These are likewise sold in their weekly tribal market at Chatikona.
Sunga ( smoking pipe) of Dongria Kandhas, ostm
The video of a Dongria Kandha male smoking using Sunga is attached for your reference.
Kulumunda ( wooden spear)
Kulumunda is nothing other than the wooden spears typically held by the heads of Dongria Kandha people , generally found in various pockets of Niyamgiri slopes of Rayagada district, Odisha, India. This shows their economic well being, social status and dignity.
( Kulumunda held by Dongria , often used for selfprotection) , ostm
Jhakmaki ( Lighter)
Jhakmaki is an indiginously fabricated lighter utilized by the Juang people of Gonasika Hill slope of Keonjhar district, Odisha, India. By and large, in a hallow piece of bamboo holder , they tie a piece of iron, a little piece of quartz stone and some cotton. Both side of the bamboo is covered with a cap of tassar or leather . At the period of need , they open the cap and afterward delicately hit the iron with the stone which generates fire for use in smoking, cooking and setting fire for different purposes Among all the primitive Tribes of the world the juang tribe has its own unique imprint. The people of this primitive tribe living at the source of Baitarani river have not forgotten their traditions even in today’s modern glare. Jhakmaki is one of these traditional items.
The video of Juang people using Jhakmaki for lighting bidi is attached for your reference:
Jhampi (Bamboo Basket)
This is a sort of flawlessly designed bamboo container which is made of bamboo parts and utilized for the purpose of storage of their garments and valuables. This is to a great extent utilized by Chuktia Bhunjia people of sunabeda plateau in Nuapada district of Odisha, India.
Jhampi of Chuktia Bhunjia people.
Gai Ghanti ( cowbell)
Lodha people living in Morada of Mayurbhanj district , use these cow bells.
This is nothing but a wooden bell with yoke tied to neck of cows to keep track of their movements . These are made by men with simple carpentry tools.When cows get lost while grazing, these sort of bells prove beneficial in locating them because of the peculiar sound coming from such cow bells.
Gai Ghanti of Lodha people, ostm
Though several most vulnerable tribal communities are very fast losing their cultural identities but their lifestyle and material culture ( before they become extinct in the course of the incessant and perennial flow of modernity with time) existing in their houses and village settings , the varieties of artefacts , crafts and art objects being used in their daily lives, have to be documented, stored and exhibited so as to catch the fascination of every tribal lover and of course that will go a long way in increasing the tribal lovers footfalls in our state. Hence, keeping aside the socio- cultural importance, these fast vanishing objects have got economic importance as well… Please never forget to give your valuable opinions in this regard.
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Dr. Manoj Mishra