The most talked about link inbetween Kalinga Jina & Jagannath
Kalinga Jina, Jina nath & Jagannath: The Correlation Still in Darkness
A Brief Understanding on the Historical Backdrop of Khandagiri- Udaygiri Twin Hills
There lies a lot of contrasts in opinions and assessments as far as the primitiveness of Jainism and Buddhism in Odisha is concerned. Which religion is more ancient in between these two as far as their inception and expanse in Odisha is concerned ? It is most likely that the 24th tirthankara of Jainism, Mahaveer and the founder of Buddhism, Buddha both were contemporary . Buddhism in Odisha is as primitive as Lord Buddha himself . But several researchers are of the unanimous view that Kalinga was the base of Jainism at least two centuries prior to the rise of Mahaveer during 6th century B.C. The Jain Chaturyama Dharma was preached by Tirthankar Parsvanath during the rule of king Karakandu , who was genuinely very much famous for his humanitarian approach, philanthropist activities and sense of tolerance for different religious practices.
(Two different Tirthankaras in a single slab , 11th – 12 th century Odisha… Recognized by their images, a bull and a lion beneath their feet. Ethereal grins, sign of the Odia creative style.)
The Jain literature like Harivansh and Avashyakasutta have got mention of the preaching of Mahavira of Panchayana Jain Dharma in the kingdom of Kalinga during 6th century BC. The 14th Haathigumpha inscription of King Kharavela in the Udayagiri hill stands apart as the most important archaeological evidence in support of the Mahavira preaching his sermon in the kingdom of Kalinga while staying on the mount of Kumari that is none other than Udaygiri( or literally the rising Hill). Here it would be wise to mention the period of existence of the great King Kharavela on this earth in reference to another great king in another part of the earth. The great Roman King Julious Ceaser and the great conqueror Kharavela were contemporary….which traces all the way back to second half of Ist century BC.
Another significant Jain literature , that is the Urrdhayanasutta has got some significant revealations in regards to the spread of Jain religion in Kalinga. It’s anything but a port called Pithunda in Kalinga was a renowned place of Jain pilgrimage which was habitually being visited by explorers and merchants too from far away nations.
Kalinga Jina, Jina Nath & Jagannath
There are numerous sources which recommend a potential Jain connection of Lord Jagannath . In view of it numerous researchers( Pandit Nilakantha Dash, Kedar Nath Mohapatra and so on) recommend that Kalinga Jina (believed to be the sculpture of a consecrated Jain image) may be the earlier form of Lord Jagannath .The Haathigumpha inscription says that King Kharavela brought back the Kalinga Jina. That implies a Nanda dynasty ruler of Magadha( most likely Mahapadma Nanda in fourth century B.C.)had vanquished Kalinga and taken away the widely worshipped deity of Kalinga , that is Kalinga Jina as a war memoir . Kalinga Jina is being assumed as the previous known form of Lord Jagannath on the grounds that …..Out of the 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism, the name of 18 of them closes with ‘ Nath’ as is the word Jagannath , which implies preeminent ‘ Nath’. The word Jagannath may have begun from the word Jinanath which is a very notable word in Jain scriptures.Jain rationalists and divotees have likewise compared Tri Ratna of Jainism with Sri Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra.
Devotees with folded hands before Kalinga Jina ( extreme left), not distinctly visible.
May be Kalinga Jina on a raised platform
Devotees with folded hands, sculptures on the entrances of the caves
A lady dancing, another playing flute, sculptures on the entrances of the caves
A few researchers are of the assessment that the Kalinga Jina( which was being worshipped all over Kalinga during fifth century B.C.) isn’t anything other than the previous form of Lord Jagannath which was set up on the top of the Khandagiri hill ( Kumar parbat) and earlier there was a Jagannath temple which has been forgotten over an expanded period of time.Even today, the temple existing on the top of Khandagiri hill is having four unique passageways very much like Puri Shri Jagannath temple.
The present Jain temple on the Khandagiri hill top.
In this context, it merits referencing that Kharavela enrolled his amazing presence throughout the ancient history of India as an incredible champion who oppressed and tossed out Yavanas from Mathura which was a sacrosanct city for Jainas.He additionally reestablished the Kalinga Jina, an imposing image of Kalinga pride. This scene has been strikingly mentioned in the rock edicts of the Udayagiri hill where King Kharavela was shown offering his reverence to the Kalinga Jina. Another aspect can be placed here in support of the fact that Jina nath might be the previous form of Jagannath. It is additionally clear that the twenty two steps of Puri Shri Jagannath temple address twenty two Tirthankars out of 24. The other two Tirthankars are addressed through the Ratnamandapa( the raised platform or the seat of Lord Jagannath) of the temple and the Grand Road or Badadanda of Puri. In this context, one may notice that when a staunch Jain follower enters the temple and starts climbing these sacred steps, he/she touches each progression with profound regard .
The most plausible essence in a nutshell can be summed up as follows…🤔🤔
Risabhanath is often referred as Adinath or the first Tirthankara of Jain philosophy. He planted the seed of Jain philosophy in the minds of Kalingan people during the rule of King Karakandu during the 8th century B.C. Then there was a steady progression of different Tirthankaras of different times to the land of Kalinga. It is believed that by the time of 4th century BC, Jainism had developed a profound presence in the land of Kalinga before the Kalinga Jina was taken away by a Nanda dynasty king and later brought back to Kalinga by the King Kharavela and most probably established on the top of the Khandagiri hill ( Kumar parbat).
Haathigumpha inscription of Kharavela
Paleographically, the engravings dates from mid-first century BCE to mid first century CE.This is considered as one of the earliest historical( and biographical too) record of a king of India.
One may take note of the fact that the language of Ashokan rock edict was magadhi prakrit ( the language which was prevalent in Magadha kingdom), whereas the language of the Haathigumpha inscription was in brahmi script. This proves that the prevalent language of the kingdom of Kalinga was brahmi during Kharavela’s rule.
From the 7th century AD travel accounts of Hiuen-Tsang , it has been confirmed that Jainism was a widely acclaimed and prevalent religion in Kangoda and Kalinga.Many Jain images are being worshipped in different Hindu temples of Odisha even today…namely
1) Sapneswar temple near Ranpur where the image of standing Risabhnath is being worshipped as Lord Shiva 2)Katabania near Dasarathpur of district Jajpur
3)Suverneswar Mahadev temple at Sahada near Jagatsinghpur
4) Chandeswar Dev temple in the middle of Ranpur...etc.
If Risabhnath is being worshipped as Lord Shiva, then why can’t one expect that the Kalinga Jina might be the previous form of Lord Jagannath? 🤔🤔🙏🙏 ……
A bird’s eye view on tourism potentials of the Twin Hills
The twin hills of Khandagiri and Udayagiri hold huge tourism potential and the honeycomb rock cut caves here can be compared with the motifs of western Indian cave architectures of Sanchi, Barhut, Bodh Gaya etc.
The different aspects of interest for tourists in the Twin Hills may be mentioned as follows.
The sightseers can develop a brief understanding regarding the structural engineering adopted in some of the important caves( out of total 18 in Udaygiri and 15 in Khandagiri) of the Twin Hills like Manchapuri Gumpha , Sarpa Gumpha, Baghra Gumpha, Jay Bijay Gumpha, Ganesh Gumpha and many other.
Ganesh Gumpha, pc: Flickr
Raanigumpha( Queen’s cave)
Byaghragumpha( Tiger cave)
Caves of Udayagiri
Guardian of a cave at Udayagiri
pc: Outlook India
Carvings on the entrances of caves
Carvings on the entrances
The Sarpa Gumpha and Baghra Gumpha have obtained their names from the front plan of their exteriors that bear resemblance with a three hooded snake and a gaping tiger respectively.
Out of all these caves, the most significant is the Haathigumpha which carries the most sought-after inscriptions of King Kharavela.
The Raanigumpha is a twofold storeyed cave shelter with a unique courtyard in the front, which finds a mention in the Natyashastra, composed by Bharatmuni( written in Sanskrit sometime between 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD). That proves how famous the said double storey open air theatre was all over the empire of King Kharavela. Apparently the open air theater concept was also prevalent during that time.This cave carries importance from two different angles. That is architectural design and artistic carving in the passageways of the caves.
The carvings in this cave recounts the tale of a ruler safeguarding a woman from snatching . Perhaps it describes the sequence of events leading to the marriage of king Kharavela with his second queen ‘Simhapath’. A canopy held over the head of a particular person ( possibly king) symbolises royal authority. The social conditions and economic prosperity of people living in those times have been effectively displayed on the entrances of different caves . This can be minutely observed to derive pleasure out of it. The rich flora and fauna existing in ancient Kalinga have also been carved in the caves. That proves the love for the nature and wildlife as well . The sculptures of dancing ladies, musical instruments, hairstyles, ornaments etc. shows how rich the ancient Kalingan people were as far as the art and culture is concerned.
Countless Jain Monuments have survived the onslaught of nature. Some are remaining buried under earth and some other are being worshipped as Gods of Hindu . Further research is expected to shed light on the said issue.More research, more contemplation and more Interpretation are needed than direct denial of the subject under study.If you would like to get informed,everytime I post something new, then please click the follow button .Please never forget to share your thoughts in the comment section.
Dr. Manoj Mishra
This is all new to most people unless you live in that part of the world. I am sure there is more to be discovered and publicly announced. History of India is so full of facts and evidence, with so much more digging and research to be done that we‚ll always be in awe. Congratulations to your devoted work, well done!
Thank you my dear friend for your incessant support and encouragement.🌹🙏
The first Tirthankara is Adinatha, the second ?
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It is believed that Ajitanatha was the second Tirthankara in the Jain philosophy. His birthplace was Ayodhya and symbol was elephant.